Livet i Swat-dalen och motståndet mot talibanerna

Den pakistanska regimens militära offensiv kan inte lösa problemet med talibanerna utan tvärtom verkar det som om talibanerna istället stärks av militärens attacker mot Swat-dalen. Detta då Pakistans regering och miliätr inte tar någon som helst hänsyn till civilbefolkningen i området. En civilbefolkning som i stor utsträckning inte stöder talibanerna, men på grund av regimens brutala behandling av dem tvingas vända sig till just de som de tog avstånd från innan, de muslimska fundamentalister. Andra tvingas på flykt under vidriga förhållanden. Farooq Ahmad, som sitter i styrelsen för Socialistiska Partiets pakistanska systerparti LPP och komemr frånd et aktuella området, beskrev situationen i ett tal han nyligen höll inför ledningen i partiet:

The Swat situation has brought the whole Pakistan in fear. It is complicated and complex situation and circumstances. There is a lot of confusion about the role of different actors playing a role in the province. It is like a chess game where you do not know about your next step when in problem. Then you just risk and move forward. It is very confusing situation. That is why the both sides, the religious fanatics and the government signed the Nizam Adl and now military operation. They are trying different tactics and are not sure which one will work. However, the prices of these blunders are paid by ordinary people of the area.

The Taliban came from Afghanistan. They settled in Swat long ago and were integrated in the area. It was not a hidden fact but open to all. They came from other areas and they have married with local girls, some time forcefully and some time with agreements and have settled down.

During 1994-95, there was a religious movement of Tehreek Nifazi Shariat Mohammdi (TNSM) of Sufi Mohammed for the implementation of “Islam”. During the movement, the sit ins and dharnaas forced Swat to be isolated from the rest of the country, The government and the Sufi Mohammed compromised and both went along well for some time.

The Swat situation has rapidly changed, within the last three years. When US attacked Afghanistan and Sufi Mohammed advocated a Jihad and “Afghanistan Chaloo” (Go Afghanistan) was his slogan. Over 15000 fundamentalist and followers of Sufi Mohammed went to Afghanistan for Jihad. The MMA government did not take any action against them and kept a very criminal silence on this Jihadi move. After the defeat of Taliban, he came back to Pakistan and was arrested for ”protected custody. Local people were angry with him. He had promised them a lot and nothing was done. The local people wanted to ask him why he has taken their sons to Afghanistan without their permission and many had lost lives during the Afghan adventure. He was arrested by the government to save him from people’s anger.

Chuprial is one part that is now the center of the religious fundamentalists. In June 2006, the Labour Party Pakistan had a public meeting here with Nisar Shah speaking, attended by over 600. There were red flags in all the area along the route from Matta. Earlier, In May 2006, LPP had a May Day rally in Matta. Matta is a Tehsil of Swat and now the main center of Taliban. So till 2006, we had good progressive forces in the area. Some of the main leaders of ANP joined LPP including Abdullah Qureshi. He was the first political figure to be killed in a suicidal attack in December 2007 at Matta. Later most of ANP leaders of the area were either killed or they left the area to safe their lives. It was fascism and government of General Musharraf took a serious notice of these events.

In 2008 general elections, in Swat, Boner, Dir and Chitral, no religious person was elected and was elected from PPP and ANP. LPP boycotted the general elections of 2008 on the appeal of the lawyer’s movement.

The people rejected the religious fundamentalist. Even now, three months earlier, in a bye election, in Boner, ANP has won from Jamaat Islami. So we can say for sure that this whole area had many political ups and downs. Fundamentalists spread in the area within last three years and particularly after the general elections of 2008 because they were organized and armed. They had resources and were using fascist tactics.. ANP and PPP went along with fundamentalists after the general elections, and released Sufi Mohammed, it strengthened the fanatics. The failure of the main political parties to mobilize people against fundamentalist paved the way for fanatic’s growth.


There are three main groups among the Taliban. ISI and CIA, they have their own groups among the Talibans. There are many incidents in Swat where truck load of arms were captured by police and then army personals let it go. It seems very clear that some sections of Taliban were supported by some sections of the army.

The Taliban war has many dimensions; there are different tactics and different targets used by these different groups. The group believed to be supported by some CIA personal are targeting on government buildings, this is Baitul Masood group of Taliban. This may be to destabilize the government.

The Taliban groups supported by some sections of the army are attacking the nationalist leaders mainly in Malkand division. From these areas, the ANP leadership is almost wiped out. All their members of parliament from these areas elected in 2008 have left the area to safe their lives. Their houses have been taken over by Taliban.

Sufi Mohammed Tehreek Nifazi Shariat Mohammdi is different from the Taliban. They are not in discipline of each other. Taliban did not want to surrender their arms although Sufi Mohammed wanted that.

The effect of Taliban activities has devastating and shocking effect on the lives of the peoples in the area. Women are worst hit. The flogging of one woman shown by the media is just one incident that came to be known to the people. This had been the case all the time. This had become a norm under Taliban. Despite the claims of the government, this incident happened and was a truth. Kala Kilay was the name where this incdent took place and some one made the video secretly.

Many more such incidents happen every day. The women are subject to the brutal behaviors. Our comrade of LPP Jilal Khan told us that he was traveling with his seven year old daughter. Taliban stopped us and asked me why no veil (Purdah) for your daughter. I knew another incident where they had killed one person because he was wearing low down Shalwar. Jilal Khan told the Taliban that this is mistake, I will not do it next time, and this was to safe his and daughter life.

They are imposing all sort of repressive measures. They have a special instrument called Gulail to size the beard of one person. If the beard is not up to the size, the person is subject to different punishments. You can not shave simple in the areas dominated by Taliban. They are terrorizing the whole community by imposing their medieval customs.


There is no military solution to the issue. The military operation has resulted in devastating effect of displacement of hundreds of thousands. We can not support the Taliban nor the military solution. We have to oppose the both. They both believe in repression. They both are linked to each other and now are fighting with each other. We can not trust any one of them.

We have to build an alternative. We have to unite all the forces opposing Taliban and also those who oppose the military solution. The labour movement has to play a role, mainly in Punjab. The people in Swat are disappointed and disillusioned. They supported the Nizam Adl because they thought it will bring the peace. It did not come. It could not come because this was an unholy agreement between the two rival forces who were deceiving each other

Many displaced people are coming to Murdan. We have to help them. We are based in Murdan and will do our best to help them. The people have no more trust in army. The army is involved with some Taliban. Lala Afzal, a respected ANP leader who fought against the Taliban and did not leave Swat until recently told a gathering that the commander of Taliban and the army is the same and one. That sums up many thing. It is conflict zone. We have to play a role in this period of the history.

Militären och talibanernan rät alltså varandras spegelbild och dessutom är delar av miliätren allierade med talibaner. Det finns ingen möjlighet att den militära offensiven kan lyckas udner sådan omständigheter. SItuationen som byggt s upp har skapats sen lång tid tilbaka och det finns inga enkla lösningar, men folket är inte betjänt av det bombkrig som förs nu eller av talibanernas brutala styre.

Borgarmedia: DN1, 2, 3, AB1, 2, 3,
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  • TB

    Säkert finns inga enkla lösningar på detta men något måste göras för att stoppa talibanernas framfart.

    I veckan kunde vi läsa om giftanfall mot flickskolor och i ett program i kunskapskanalen för någon vecka sedan visades hur man systematiskt rev skolor. I samma program framkom att halshuggningar förekommer flitigt och att piskstraff förekommer dagligen.

    I fallet med talibanerna hör nog ändå till de fall där våld måste användas. För talibanerna är våldet en del av ideologin och det heliga kriget varför de aldrig kommer att kunna stoppas med rationella argument och sakliga förhandlingar.

    Sedan är det en annan sak att den pakistanska armén på intet sätt är rustad för strid mot talibanernas styrkor som till en del tillämpar gerillataktik.

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  • Martin

    det vore kanske inte så smart att rusta den pakistanska armén mera, risken är att man då bara sätter fler och modernare vapen i Talibanernas händer.

    Enda långsiktiga lösningen är att undanröja de samhällsförhållanden som ger sådana organisationer stora rekryteringsmöjligheter. Man förhandlar inte med någon man vill förgöra, man stryper deras rekryteringsmöjligheter, deras finansieringsmöjligheter och deras möjlighet att skaffa vapen. Detta görs bäst med en folklig mobilisering emot dem, är deras rekryteringsbas och underhållsbas vunnen till motståndet så är deras dagar räknade.